英语论文写作中,如何使用冒号?

时间:2021-09-12 14:04:18 编辑:刘东

  1.介绍一个或多个项目:

  Humans use five major senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

  分隔两个独立从句,第二个从句用来叙述、说明、改写或延伸第一个从句:

  Martha realized that her worst fear was coming true: her son was being sent to war.

  (*冒号后用独立的从句解释Martha’s fear)

  2.商业书信或正式信件开头问候语:

  To the Central Valley Committee Chairman:

  3.其他冒号使用准则

  3.1冒号后的第一个字母不要大写,除非是专有名词, is part of a quote, or is the first in a series of sentences:

  错误范例: I have three desires: To eat, sleep, and work.

  正确范例 : I have three desires: to eat, sleep, and work.

  3.2当引号内包含多个句子,许多作者会倾向使用冒号而非逗号来引出内容:

  In Chapter 3, the author explains his theory: “Dogs have dreams, but they don’t dream as humans do. Their dreams reflect a primal desire for pleasure, whereas humans are preoccupied with the ego and self-image. This is equally true in wakefulness and sleep.”

  3.3接在冒号之后的内容不一定要是完整的句子,可以是单词或短语:

  There is one mantra that can sum up our position towards climate change: urgent action.

  4常见冒号错误

  4.1分隔平等并且无相关的两个从句:

  错误范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain: nature always held a special meaning for them.

  正确范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain; nature always held a special meaning for them.

  (*若两个从句完全无相关,则应使用句号;若第二个从句和第一个从句有某种程度相关,并且并非用来陈述、说明或改写第一个子句,则使用分号分隔)

  4.2过度使用冒号:

  冒号属于强调性质的标点符号,要避免过多使用。请将冒号想像为暂停标志,用来引起读者注意“Hey! Pay attention to this. This is important.” 如果路上有过多的暂停标志,则无法顺利并快速的前进,同样的道理,若文章中包含过多的冒号,读者也无法顺利阅读。

  冒号主要用来吸引读者注意力并清楚的指出重要信息,因此,许多作者会使用冒号来导出他们的重要主张或是用来支撑证明。