让学习成为一种习惯!

英语阅读理解技巧

英语学习方法 05-28 12:30:16 编辑:张丹
【www.xuexiya.com - 英语学习方法】

  阅读理解始终是外语学习和考试重点。

  一.阅读理解的测试要点如下:

  1.理解主旨大意;

  2.寻读具体信息;

  3.理解细节;

  4.根据上下文提供的语境,推测生词词义,进而加深对文段的理解;

  5.简单的判断和理解;

  6.理解文段的基本逻辑结构;

  7.理解作者的意图和态度;

  8.理解文段的文化信息;

  9.理解图表信息;

  10.理解指代关系。

  从高考命题的实际情况看,命题者常用下述方法提问:

  1.What is the purpose of the text?

  2.What does the author mainly tell US about in the passage?

  3.What can we infer from the passage?

  4.What can be inferred from the passage?

  5.It can be concluded from the text that   ?

  6.What can we learn from the text?

  7.What is the general idea/main idea of the text?

  8. The passage mainly focuses on   ?

  9. What is the main subject discussed in the text?(学习呀 www.xuexiya.com)

  10. It can be inferred from the passage that?

  11. It can be inferred from the that the author seems to?

  12. What is the best title of the text/for the article?

  13. The best title for this passage is?

  14. What can we infer from the last/the first two paragraphs?

  15. The meaning of the word/sentence in Paragraph X is related to?

  16. In Paragraph X, "X X X" can be replaced by?

  17. The underlined word "X "/sentence in Paragraph X probably mean.

  18. The text is mainly written to explain.

  19. Which of the following statements is true?

  20. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text?

  基于上述测试要点,学生在阅读过程中必须具备下列技能,才能获取和处理信息:

  1.略读;

  2.找读;

  3.预测下文;

  4.理解大意;

  5.分清文章中的事实和观点;

  6.猜测词义;

  7.推理判断;

  8,了解重点细节;

  9。理解文章结构;

  10.理解图表信息;

  11.理解指代关系;

  12.理解逻辑关系;

  13.理解作者意图;

  14.评价阅读内容。

  要具备上述技能,应该做到:

  1.学会使用3500个左右的单词、400-500个合成词与派生词和400-500个习惯用语或固定搭配;

  2.除教材外,课外阅读量应累积达到30万词以上,换言之,长度300词左右的文段1000篇;

  3.能通过分析句子的结构理解难句和长句(能理解语言结构有一定难度或有一定新语言现象的文段);

  4.能根据阅读目的和文段的不同,调整阅读速度和阅读方法,阅读速度每分钟70-80词。

  二、文章分类分析

  文章一般可分为说明文、论说文、叙述文以及广告等。

  根据历年考试的情况看,说明文、论说文的文长基本控制在300词左右。因此,文章的主旨大意多出现在第一段,甚至第一段的前几句,最后一段多与第一段呼应;至于中间的部分,多是论据或说明文的展开。阅读理解的问题也以如下形式出现:

  1. What is the best title for/of the passage?

  2. What can be inferred from the passage?

  3. What does the author mainly tell us about in the text?

  4. What is mainly discussed in the article/passage/text?

  做答这类问题时,将阅读重点放在首尾部分,中间部分则可采用略读或扫读的方式,一则省时间,二则目标明确,正答率自然也相应提高了。

  示例 2004年全国卷Ⅱ,C篇,介绍1971年版大众车。根据内容,是一篇说明小文。

  It’s not the flashiest car in the world.Not even close.But in the 1971 Volkswagen named Helios can do something most cars can’t:run on solar energy-energy from the sun’s light and heat!

  66. What would be the best title for the text?

  A.The Making of Helios

  B.1999 American Tour on the Road

  C.Sun-powered Cars On the Road

  D.Use of Green Cars in Connection

  (一)阅读理解之细节题的解题思路

  主题思想只是文章的框架,作者在构思过程中,还必须对要表达的观点或信息进行具体的陈述,读者应能准确记住作者在陈述中谈到是何人、何处、何事、和何时何故,这是十分重要的。因此,读者必须重视人名、日期、事实、数据和地点等。对于这类细节性的问题,多数文章都比较明显地提供了事实和细节,其答案必定在文章论述范围之内。读者应该找出文章中为所作的选择提供依据的单词和句子,而不能脱离原文去获取信息,也不能仓促地作出没有原文根据的假设。

  细读是获取事实和细节不可缺少的方法之一,它使读者能够接受信息、记忆信息、分析信息,从而较深入地领会一篇文章。

  这类题型主要有三种形式:问句式,不完整的陈述句和排除法。

  1.问句式

  A.其发问形式主要有以下几种:

  How did something happen?

  Which of the following people should(not) do it?

  Which of the following did somebody have to deal with... ?

  Where should somebody do something?

  B.解题技巧

  在解这类题时,可采用“对号入座”的办法,即带着问题找句子,先看文章后面的问题(这常常被认为是非常有效的方法),注意记忆关键的词语,如。人物、时间、事件等,确定每道题目的发问中心,也,就是说,某个问题是针对什么提问的。这样我们就可以带着问题去阅读文章,做到有的放矢。

  把每个问题的发问中心反馈到原文中去。当读到有关解答发问中心的信息时,可在有关信息下面画一直线以示突出。如果问题的顺序没有按顺序给出,可以在原文信息下画线的同时,把问题的题号也标出来,便于最后检查,并节约时间。

  在原文中找出对发问中心的解答信息后,可把原文信息放到问题中去,与每一选项进行对照,与原文信息相符的那项,即是正确的答案。

  Cattle have served humanity since prehistoric(史前) days as beasts of burden and as supplier of leather, meat, and milk. Some of the earliest written records concern the sale of cattle. These valuable animals are unusual in that they do not have front teeth in their upper jaw. Instead they chew with their backteeth and gums (齿龈). Cows swallow their food quickly and store it in the fat stomach or rumen, the first of the four compartments stomachs in their.

  Questions: According to the passage, what is the rumen?

  A. The first stomach compartment.

  B. The name of the upper jaw.

  C. The stomach where digestion (消化) takes place.

  D. The name of the bacteria(细菌) in the cow's stomach.

  带着发问中心及选择项目阅读原文。当我们读到rumen这个词时,可在它下面画一横线,紧接此词下面一句“first of the four compartments in theirstomachs”,正是解释rumen的,可在它的下面画一虚线并可标出题号和选择项。

  2.不完整的陈述句式

  A.常见形式有:

  Something can be best classified as       .

  A certain kind of person is someone who        .

  People are looking for better ways to        .

  According to the author,“it”was caused by       .

  B.解题技巧:

  这类题的答案与原文在字面上的差异很大,有时还要找出与前句的内容在逻辑上的联系,因此答这类题时准确理解是关键,

  一定要冷静,仔细分析。在做不完整的陈述式题目时候,仍可参考上面列举的解题步骤。第一步,阅读题目,找出问题的发问中心。第二步,带着这些问题来阅读文章。第三步,根据前两步的分析和判断,选择出最符合题意的答案。

  3.排除式

  A.常见形式有:

  Which of the following are NOT mentioned in the passage?

  Which of the following is TRUE?

  Which of the following is NOT listed in ... ?

  Which of the following is NOT included in the passage?

  B.解题技巧:

  做这类题时,首先要仔细阅读题后的选项,牢记各个选项所阐述的不同内容,然后阅读原文。凡是原文中的信息与选择项内容相同的,我们可以在这些信息下面划线,以作为排除的内容。如果基本选项的内容在原文找不到相应的信息,那么该选项即为该题的答案。这类题与前两种题型不同,后者答案应包括在原文内容中,即与所述的事实具有直接或间接的联系,而前者的答案是被排除在原文内容之外的,因此在答题时要将与原文内容有关的三个选项排除,剩下的一个才是答案。

  Life on Land

  Life on land probably began about 430 million years ago, though it has existed in the water for perhaps as long as 3000 million years. When we think of the first life on land, we probably think of strange animalscoming out of the oceans, but, in fact ,no animals could have been living if plants had not been on land first. Plants had to be on land before animals arrived. They supplied the first land animals with the surrounding and food necessary, since they--the plants are the only form of life that is able to get and store energy.

  The first plants to exist out of the water were probably certain kinds of algae (海藻) which were followed by other plants that grew close to the ground and needed water in which to reproduce.

  Which of the following is TRUE?

  A. Algae have existed for more than 430 million years.

  B. It is impossible that algae might be the earliest plant on land.

  C. Plants get food from animals in the oceans.

  D. Evolution began after animals appeared on land.

  这是一道事实询问题。需要把短文第一段首句

  “Life on land probably began about 430 million years ago”和短文第二段首句“The first plants to exist out of the water were probably certain kinds of algae”联系起来考虑,正确答案为A。B、C、D三项与短文内容均不符,应排除。

  (二)阅读理解之准确找出主题句

  阅读理解的技巧中非常重要的一点是在阅读中迅速地抓住文章或段落的中心思想。

  段落的构成有其内在的规律,其中心思想往往是通过段落中的主题句来体现的。因此了解并掌握这些规律,迅速找出主题句,从而抓住中心思想对于提高阅读理解能力大有益处。

  这些规律主要是通过主题句在段落中所处的不同的位置体现的。因此同学们首先应对以下四种段型有所了解,然后通过一系列有意识的训练掌握它们。

  1.首句是主题句的规律

  ①给予例证、解释或说明的段落;

  ②下定义的段落;

  ③对两个或两个以上的事物作比较或对比的段落;

  ④表明原因和结果(往往结果交代在前)的段落。

  主题句是首句的段落总是用演绎法撰写,遵循从一般到个别或特殊的写作程序,即以概述开段,随之辅以细说。这样的段落在文章中出现得最多,据专门研究阅读理论与技巧的专家们统计,概率达到70%。请看下例:

  People who talk and sing to plants have no mental problems at all, according to an agricultural expert. "In fact, singing and talking to plants makes them grow better," says Dr Braymar. The reason is quite simple. When we sing or talk to plants, we exhale(呼出) CO2 which plants need to survive (continue to live)and grow better. Plants absorb (take in) CO2 through their pores(小孔) during the sunlight hours and produce oxygen which people to survive. Singing and talking havegood effect on plants, however, only during the daytime. Singing or talking at bedtime will not help plants to grow better or grow faster.

  本段的首句是主题句,其后的句子或是解释说明“对植物说话或唱歌有益于植物”,或是为这一主题思想提供论据。本段的结尾句呼应主题句,在给予主题思想又一论据的同时,幽默地收尾。

  2.段落尾句是主题句的规律

  (1)阐述一个不常见的或难以令人接受的观点的段落。

  (2)旨在说服读者相信甚至信服其论点的段落。

  尾句是主题句的段落总是用归纳法撰写的,其程序是先表述细节或交代论据,最后作出概括性的结论,以总结性的句子收尾。这种写作方法的特点是从个别到一般,

  由特殊性到共性。请看下例:

  If you hadn't known them, you would have thought Joe and Jim were quite alike. They were both tall and wore long and fair hair. They both walked with a steady stride (坚定的步伐). They both spoke in a deep voice that made them selves seem much older than they really were. Both of them wore dark clothes as a rule, and they liked light coloured ties. But that was all the likeness they had. In other things they were sharply different. Joe was considerate and helpful, and everyone liked him. Jim, however, was very selfish and often flared into terrible anger (勃然大怒) at little things that displeased him. Alike as Joe and Jim were on the surfacethey were really very different in nature.

  这段文字从乔与吉姆两个人相像和不同的细节叙述,最后一句作了归纳总结:这两人表面相似,但实质极不相同。

  3.段落中间句是主题句的规律

  表述某种观点的段落的主题句往往处于段落的中间。这样段落先以一句或几句为主题句的出现作铺垫,或是交代一个细节或论据。在主题句出场后,仍有适当数量的句子陈述细节或继续给予例证。这类段落包括几个层次:引题—主题思想—解释或“提问”—回答问题或继续给予例证。这样段落的撰写总是遵循这条规律:先归纳后演绎。给出一两个例证之后,作出概括性的总结,然后根据这一结论再给予例证来证实其论点。请看下例:

  When you throw a ball up into the air as fast as you can, the ball reaches a point where it seems to pause for a moment, and then it comes down. When a bullet (子弹) is shot straight up, it will travel much faster and higher than a ball, but it, too, will

  come down. Whatever goes up must come down. We have al-ways thought this to be true. An airplane may climb to a height of seventeen miles and then travel far and long. Yet it does not stay up forever. Finally, like every-thing else, the plane must come down.

  本段文字中间红色字体的这句话是主题句。其行文顺序与写作方法与上述的发展程序完全吻合。

  (三)如何抓住长句的核心

  阅读较难的读物时,经常遇到很长的句子。这些长句往往是初学者在阅读理解中的拦路虎。倘若初学者具备准确找出长句的核心的能力,那么这只拦路虎也就变成了纸老虎,一点也不可怕了。

  何为句子的核心?所谓句子的核心(the core of a sentence),就是指句子最主要的成分:主语、谓语动词及其宾语或表语。这三种句子成分是句子最基本的要素。虽然有的句子表面上很长,其实它们的核心部分只不过是几个关键词。其他的部分统统都是为这几个核心词服务的,或是描述修饰它们,或是解释说明以下细节:时间(when)、地点(where)、原因(why)、方式(how)、何物(what)、数量(how many或how much)及何种结果(what result)等。下面将对曾在近年高考试题中出现的一个长句进行分析,因其具有权威性、代表性和实用性。

  实例Twenty students had just climbed their way to the top rung (最高的台阶) out of four million students taking part in the Fifth National Hua Luogeng Gold Cup Mathematics Contest on Tues-clay evening at Jintan County, Jiangsu Province.

  分析过程的演示:

  句子的核心:students...climbed...way

  句子的一系列细节:

  How many:twenty out of four million

  What result: to the top rung

  What thing: the Fifth National Hua Luogeng Gold Cup Mathematics Contest

  Doing what: taking part in the... Contest

  When: Tuesday evening

  Where: Jintan County, Jiangsu Province

  抓住句子的核心后,我们首先准确地理解了句子最主要的成分:……学生登上最高的台阶。再经过对这个长句的一系列细节的分析,我们可以更进一步地了解到:四百多万参加“全国第五届华罗庚数学金杯赛”中的中学生里有二十个学生在星期二于江苏省金坛县登上了最高的台阶。

  2.找出谓语动词是抓住核心的关键

  英语与汉语的一个区别就是英语中有三种非谓语动词形式:动词不定式、分词与动名词。这三种非谓语动词形式又各自有其一系列的形式,如果在句子中不能迅速而又准确地找到谓语动词,势必会对理解形成严重的障碍。因此找出句子的谓语动词就成了抓住核心的关键。

  找出句子的谓语动词后,用who或what放在谓语动词前发问,就可以轻而易举地找到主语,然后再用whom或what发问,就可迅速找出其宾语或表。语,以及一系列状语,这样正确理解长句或难句就会变得轻松而容易。请看下面例证中的划线的句子:

  Sometimes an animal has a plant partner. The relationship develops until the two partners cannot manage without each other. This is so in corals(珊瑚) of the sea. In their skins, corals have tiny plants which act as "dustmen", taking some of the waste products from the coral and giving in return oxygen which the animal needs very much to breathe.

  乍看划线的这个句子,第一印象是这个句子很长,再看下去,就会感到这个长句中动词很多,多至六个。那么哪一个是谓语动词呢?根据我们已掌握的基本知识,经过语法分析,不难看出这个句子的谓语动词是have。于是我们用that放在have前提问:What have...?回答这个问题的过程就是找出主语的过程:corals have...。然后再用what放在谓语动词后发问:corals have what?找出这个问题的答案也就找到了这个谓语动词have的宾语:   have tiny plants。这样该句的最核心的部分:主语、谓语和宾语就都准确地找到了。

  3.语法分析法是准确理解细节行之有效的方法

  通过对上例的分析,我们可以令人信服地让同学们接受我们关于如何抓住句子核心的观点和方法。但是仅有这些,就想正确理解这么长这么复杂的句子,那是不现实的。要想进一步正确而又深入地理解这个句子,语法分析法在实践中已被反复地证实了是行之有效的。在上例划线的句首处,用了介词词组:in their skins(在它们的皮肤上),交代了corals have tiny plants的地点状语,实际上回答的是where(何处)的问题;在plants之后用的是限制性的定语从句:which act as“dustmen”(起到是清洁工作用的微生物),实际上回答的是what effect do they have(它们起的是什么作用)的问题。在这个定语从句后出现的是现在分词短语:taking some of the wasted products from the coral and giving in return oxygen...。经过语法分析,不难看出此处的分词短语起的是解释说明的作用,其意为:从珊瑚中清理掉一些废料的产物而归还其氧气。在oxygen之后又出现了一个定语从句:which the animal needs very much to breathe(此种动物非常需要呼吸的氧气)。

  诚然,对于一个训练有素的考生,上述这一切是在很短的时间内完成的。但是其阅读、理解及思维等过程,必须经过上面叙述的每一个细节,因此他的正确理解结果必然是:在珊瑚的皮肤中,有着一些微生物,这些微生物在它们身体上充当着“清洁工”,清理掉它们身体产生的废料,而还给珊瑚这种动物非常需要呼吸的氧气。

  (四)猜词技巧

  阅读理解的测试中经常有猜测词、短语、习语意义的题目,这些词、短语、习语要么是生词,要么是熟词新义,单靠平时积累是不够的,还要掌握一定的做题技巧。总结如下:

  (1)根据构词法(转化、合成、派生)进行判断:在英语中,有很多词可以在前面加前缀(prefix),或在后面加后缀(suffix),从而构成一个词,乍看起来,这个词可能是生词,但掌握了一定的构词法,就不难猜出它的词义。例如:

  "Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10," Anaclerio said, "and they're very interactive and creative in that they built a sense of drama based on a subject."

  文中interactive是由前缀inter(相互的)和active(活动的,活跃的)构成的,同时根据上下文的意思可以判断,该词的含义应是“互动的”。

  (2)根据上下文解释作出判断:有时短文中出现一个需猜测其意义的词或短语,下面接着出现其定义域或解释,这就是判断该词或短语意义的主要依据。请看下例:

  Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Centre offers a wide variety ofchoices—deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches, Santana sedans are the big favourite.

  从前面的Car Rental Center可知出租车公司提供的只能是cars for rent(出租汽车),也就是说划线的词都是出租汽车的名称。

  (3)根据上下文的指代关系进行选择:文章中的代词it,that,he,him或them可以指上文提到的人或物,其中it和that还可以指一件事。有时代词指代的对象相隔较远,要认真查找;有时需要对前面提到的内容进行总结,才能得出代词所指代的事。例如:

  However, the question that "moon people" asked is still an interesting one. A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it.

  首先,it指上句中的the question,而the question又指上一段中“月球人”所提的问题,所以要经过两次查找才能选出答案。

  (4)根据转折或对比关系进行判断:根据上下句的连接词,如but,however,otherwise等就可以看到前后句在意义上的差别,从而依据某一句的含义,来确定另一句的含义。另外,分号(;)也可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。请看下例:A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle;it call be a basket of fun。从上下句可以看出,hassle和a basket of fun肯定是近乎相反的意义,也就是a situation causing difficulty or trouble。

  (5)根据因果关系进行判断:俗话说,“有因必有果,有果必有因”。根据原因可以预测结果,根据结果也可以找出原因。例如:

  Biggest power failure in the city's history...All of our ice—cream and frozen foods melted.根据因果关系,停电只能导致冰淇淋和冷冻食品“融化”,也就是melted。

  (6)根据同位关系进行判断:阅读中有时出现新词、难词,后面就跟着一个同位语,对前面的词进行解释,有时这种解释也用连词“or”连接。例如:

  ...,and other Germanic and Nordic peoples, who spoke what we now call Anglo-Saxon(or old English),a Germanic language.其中old English,a Germanic language都是解释Anglo—Saxon的。