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高中化学:非金属单质方程式

05-06 15:59:55 编辑:张丹

  1、氧化性:

  F2+H2===2HF (阴暗处爆炸)

  F2+Xe(过量)==XeF2

  2F2(过量)+Xe==XeF4 (XeF4是强氧化剂,能将Mn2+氧化为MnO4–)

  nF2+2M===2MFn(M表示大部分金属)

  2F2+2H2O===4HF+O2 (水是还原剂)

  2F2+2NaOH===2NaF+OF2+H2O

  F2+2NaCl===2NaF+Cl2

  F2+2NaBr===2NaF+Br2

  F2+2NaI===2NaF+I2

  7F2(过量)+I2===2IF7

  F2+Cl2(等体积)===2ClF (ClF属于类卤素:ClF+H2O==HF+HClO )

  3F2(过量)+Cl2===2ClF3 (ClF3+3H2O==3HF+HClO3 )

  Cl2+H2 2HCl (将H2在Cl2点燃;混合点燃、加热、光照发生爆炸)

  3Cl2+2P 2PCl3 Cl2+PCl3 PCl5 Cl2+2Na 2NaCl

  3Cl2+2Fe 2FeCl3 Cl2+Cu CuCl2

  Cl2+2FeCl2===2FeCl3 (在水溶液中:Cl2+2Fe2+===2Fe3++3Cl )

  Cl2+2NaBr===2NaCl+Br2 Cl2+2Br =2Cl +Br2

  Cl2+2KI===2KCl+I2 Cl2+2I =2Cl +I2

  3Cl2(过量)+2KI+3H2O===6HCl+KIO3

  3Cl2+I–+3H2O=6H++6Cl–+IO3–

  5Cl2+I2+6H2O===2HIO3+10HCl

  5Cl2+I2+6H2O=10Cl–+IO3–+12H+

  Cl2+Na2S===2NaCl+S↓ Cl2+S2–=2Cl–+S↓(学习呀 www.xuexiya.com)

  Cl2+H2S===2HCl+S↓ (水溶液中:Cl2+H2S=2H++2Cl–+S↓

  Cl2+SO2+2H2O===H2SO4+2HCl

  Cl2+SO2+2H2O=4H++SO42–+2Cl–

  Cl2+H2O2===2HCl+O2 Cl2+H2O2=2H++Cl–+O2

  2O2+3Fe Fe3O4  O2+K===KO2

  S+H2 H2S 2S+C CS2 S+Zn ZnS

  S+Fe FeS (既能由单质制取,又能由离子制取)

  S+2Cu Cu2S (只能由单质制取,不能由离子制取)

  3S+2Al Al2S3 (只能由单质制取,不能由离子制取)

  N2+3H2 2NH3  N2+3Mg Mg3N2 N2+3Ca Ca3N2

  N2+3Ba Ba3N2 N2+6Na 2Na3N N2+6K 2K3N

  N2+6Rb 2Rb3N N2+2Al 2AlN

  P4+6H2 4PH3 P+3Na Na3P 2P+3Zn Zn3P2

  H2+2Li 2LiH

  2、还原性

  S+O2 SO2

  S+H2SO4(浓) 3SO2↑+2H2O

  S+6HNO3(浓) H2SO4+6NO2↑+2H2O

  S+4H++6==6NO2↑+2H2O+

  3S+4HNO3(稀) 3SO2+4NO↑+2H2O

  3S+4H++4 3SO2+4NO↑+2H2O

  N2+O2 2NO

  4P+5O2 P4O10(常写成P2O5)

  2P+3X2 2PX3(X表示F2,Cl2,Br2)

  PX3+X2 PX5

  P4+20HNO3(浓) 4H3PO4+20NO2↑+4H2O

  C+2F2 CF4

  C+2Cl2 CCl4

  C+O2(足量) CO2

  2C+O2(少量) 2CO

  C+CO2 2CO

  C+H2O CO+H2(生成水煤气)

  2C+SiO2 Si+2CO(制得粗硅)

  Si(粗)+2Cl2 SiCl4

  (SiCl4+2H2===Si(纯)+4HCl)

  Si(粉)+O2 SiO2

  Si+C SiC(金刚砂)

  Si+2NaOH+H2O==Na2SiO3+2H2↑ (Si+2OH +H2O= +2H2↑)

  3、歧化反应

  Cl2+H2O==HCl+HClO(加碱或光照促进歧化: (Cl2+H2O H++Cl–+HClO)

  Cl2+2NaOH==NaCl+NaClO+H2O  (Cl2+2OH–=Cl–+ClO–+H2O)

  Cl2+2Ca(OH)2==CaCl2+Ca(ClO)2+2H2O (Cl2+2OH–=Cl–+ClO–+H2O)

  3Cl2+6KOH(浓) 5KCl+KClO3+3H2O (3Cl2+6OH– 5Cl–+ClO3–+3H2O)

  3S+6NaOH 2Na2S+Na2SO3+3H2O  (3S+6OH– 2S2–+SO32–+3H2O)

  4P+3KOH(浓)+3H2O==PH3↑+3KH2PO2 (4P+3OH–+3H2O==PH3↑+3H2PO2–)

  11P+15CuSO4+24H2O==5Cu3P+6H3PO4+15H2SO4

  3C+CaO CaC2+CO↑

  3C+SiO2 SiC+2CO↑

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