小升初英语名词语法及练习题

时间:2020-02-10 19:03:52 编辑:张丹

  一、 可数名词与不可数名词的区别

  普通名词所表示的人或事物是可以按个数计算的,这类名词叫可数名词。可数名词分为个体名词(表示某类人或事物中的个体,如worker, farmer, desk, factory等)和集体名词(表示作为一个整体来看的一群人或一些事物,如people, family 等)。如果普通名词所表示的事物是不能按个数来计算的,这类名词就叫不可数名词。不可数名词分为物质名词(表示无法分为个体的物质,如meat, rice, water, milk, orange 等)和抽象名词(表示动作、状态、情况、品质等抽象概念,如work, homework, time, health, friendship等)。

  二、 可数名词的家务事

  可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。指一个人或一件事物时,用单数形式;指两个或多个人或事物时用复数形式。名词由单数形式变成复数形式的规则如下:

  1. 一般的名词词尾直接加-s 。如:

  book → books room → rooms

  house → houses day → days

  2. 以s, ss, ch, sh, x 结尾的名词,在词尾加-es 。如:

  bus → buses glass → glasses

  watch → watches

  dish → dishes box → boxes

  3. 以"辅音字母+y"结尾的名词,要先将y改为i再加-es。如:

  city → cities body → bodies

  factory → factories等等。

  4. 以f 或fe 结尾的名词,要将f或fe改为v再加-es。如:

  half → halves leaf → leaves

  knife → knives wife → wives

  5. 特例 [悄悄话:特例常常考,要记住。]

  ① child → children

  ② man → men woman → women

  policeman → policemen

  (规律:man → men)

  ③ tomato → tomatoes potato → potatoes

  [悄悄话: 初中英语以o 结尾的名词变复数时只有这两个词加-es,

  其余的当然加-s喽!如:photo → photos ]

  ④ foot → feet tooth → teeth [悄悄话: oo变成ee。]

  ⑤ sheep, Chinese, Japanese单、复数同形 [悄悄话: 变复数时词形不变。]

  ⑥ people单数形式表示复数意义,要求谓语动词用复数; people的复数形式peoples通常指"多个民族"。

  三、 不可数名词的家务事

  1. 不可数名词没有复数,当它作句子的主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。如:

  The food is very fresh. 食品很新鲜。

  2. 有的不可数名词也可以作可数名词,有复数形式,但他们的意义发生变化。如:

  water (水) → waters (水域)

  orange (橘汁) → oranges (橘子)

  3. 很多的不可数名词表示泛指时为不可数,表示种类时就可数,但意义大多不发生变化。如:

  fruit → fruits food → foods

  fish → fishes hair → hairs

  *** 用所给名词的适当形式填空。

  1. How many________(sheep) are there on the hill?

  2. There is some________(food) in the basket.

  3. The baby has only two________(tooth) now.

  4. There is a lot of________(water) in the bottle.

  5. There are five________(people ) in his family.

  6. Let's take________(photo), OK?

  7. I have lots of________(tomato) here.

  8. The________(leaf) on the tree turn-yellow.

  9. The________(child) are playing games on the playground now.

  10. Their________(dictionary) look new.

  11. I see you have a few white________(hair).

  12. They are________(woman) doctors.

  13. Can you give me some bottles of ____ (orange), please?

  14. There are many________(fox) in the picture.

  15. I would like some apple________(juice). I am very thirsty.

  参考答案:

  1. sheep 2. food 3. teeth 4. water 5. people 6. photos 7. tomatoes 8. leaves

  9.children 10.dictionaries 11.hair,hairs 12.women 13.orange 14.foxes 15.juice

  名词可数不可数“六注意”