高三英语重点知识点总结5篇

更新时间:2020-04-21 17:30:20 编辑:张丹

  高三英语知识点1

  主语从句

  主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句子末尾。

  1. It 作形式主语和it引导强调句的比较。

  It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而it引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词that。被强调部分指人是也可用who/whom。

  例如:

  It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film.

  It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not.

  It is in the morning that the murder took place.

  It is John that broke the window.

  2. 用it 作形式主语的结构。

  (1) It is +名词+从句

  It is a fact that … 事实是…

  It is an honor that …非常荣幸

  It is common knowledge that …是常识

  (2) it is +形容词+从句

  It is natural that… 很自然…

  It is strange that… 奇怪的是…[由www.xuexiYa.coM整理]

  (3) it is +不及物动词+从句

  It seems that… 似乎…

  It happened that… 碰巧…

  (4) it +过去分词+从句

  It is reported that… 据报道…

  It has been proved that… 已证实…

  3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况。

  (1) if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。

  (2) It is said , (reported) …结构中的主语从句不可提前。

  例如:

  It is said that President Jingo will visit our school next week. (right)

  That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (wrong)

  (3) It happens…, It occurs… 结构中的主语从句不可提前。

  例如:

  It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. (right)

  That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (wrong)

  (4) It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。

  例如:

  It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. (right)

  Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter. (wrong)

  (5) 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。

  例如:

  Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? (right)

  Is that will rain in the evening likely? (wrong)

  4. What 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别。

  What 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而that 则不然。

  例如:

  1) What you said yesterday is right.

  2) That she is still alive is a consolation.

  宾语从句

  宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后。

  1. 作动词的宾语。

  (1) 由that引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略)

  例如:

  I heard that be joined the army.

  (2) 由what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句

  例如:

  1) She did not know what had happened.

  2) I wonder whether you can change this note for me.

  (3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句

  例如:

  She told me that she would accept my invitation.

  2. 作介词的宾语。

  例如:

  Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.

  3. 作形容词的宾语。

  例如:

  I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

  That 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语:

  Anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的that 从句的看作原因状语从句。

  4. It 可以作为形式宾语。

  It 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。

  例如:

  We heard it that she would get married next month..

  5. 后边不能直接跟that 从句的动词。

  这类动词有Allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用that引导的宾语从句。

  例如:

  I admire their winning the match. (right)

  I admire that they won the match. (wrong)

  6. 不可用that从句作直接宾语的动词。

  有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that从句“结构中,常见的有Envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate等。

  例如:

  He impressed the manager as an honest man. (right)

  He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. (wrong)

  7. 否定的转移

  若主句谓语动词为Think, consider, wuppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。

  例如:

  I don’t think this dress fits you well.(我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。)

  表语从句

  表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。引导表语从句的that常可省略。另外,常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结构。

  例如:

  1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.

  2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people

  3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.

  4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

  同位语从句

  同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。

  1. 同位语从句的功能。

  同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由that引导。

  例如:

  1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.

  2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.

  2. 同位语在句子中的位置。

  同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。

  例如:

  He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

  3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别。

  (1) 定语从句中的that既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同位语从句中的that是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。

  (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:

  1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。)(第一个that引导的从句是定语从句,that在从句中作宾语)

  2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。)(同位语从句,that在句中不作任何成分) 。

  高三英语知识点2

  Happy Christmas?

  英语可说happy Christmas 吗?请看这样一道题:

  -__________ Christmas!

  -Same __________ you.

  A. Merry, as B. Merry, on C. Happy, as D. Happy, to

  此题应选 D。容易误选A,B。错误思维是:

  1. 可以说 Happy new year, 但必须说 Merry Christmas.

  2. the same as, the same...as 是固定搭配。

  关于第2点,比较好解释,因为(The) Same to you. 是口语惯用语,回答祝愿,其意为“也祝你……”。

  而第1点搞错的人就很多了,不少人都想当然地认为不能像Happy New Year, Happy birthday那样用Happy Christmas, 其实这是一种典型的想当然错误,请看有关_词书的实例。如:

  1. 大家熟悉的《朗文当代英语词典》(1987年版)就多处出现 Happy Christmas 的用例。如:

  1)Happy Christmas. (p. 476,happy词条)

  2)"Happy Christmas. " "Same to you. " (p. 925 same 词条)

  2. 又如章振邦教授主编的两本英语语法著作。如:

  1)Happy Christmas. 《新编英语语法教程》(p. 459)

  2)A Happy Christmas to all. 《新编英语语法》(上册p. 183)

  3. 再如《英语学习》杂志,1992年第7期p. 17的一段对话中,多次将 Happy Christmas 与 Merry Christmas 交替使用。

  4. 如果你是一个层次稍高的英语学习者,你可能会读过杨岂深教授主编的《英国文学选读》(Book 3),如果你细心的话,你会发现该书 ANGLO-SAXON ATTITUDES 一文里,也在多次交替使用 Happy Christmas 和 Merry Christmas。

  高三英语知识点3

  一、非谓语动词

  “非谓语动词”可分为动词不定式、动名词和分词.它在句子中的作用很多:除了不作谓语外,它可以充当主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语与复合宾语(主语补语或宾语补语).有些及物动词后面接不带to的不定式作复合宾语.这些动词归纳如下:一感(feel).二听(hear,listen to),三让(have,1et, make),四看(see,watCh,notice,observe).再加上help somebody(to)do something和美国英语look at somebody do somthing.还有“二让”属特殊:get somebody to do something 与keep somebody doing.而有些及物动词后面接动名词(the -ing form)作宾语.这些动词归纳为一句话:Papa C makes friends.这是由如下动词的开头字母组成:permit,advise, practise,avoid,consider,mind, allow,keep,enjoy,suggest, finish,risk,imagine,escape,need,delay,stand(忍受). 为了容易记住,也可以编成顺口溜:“允许完成练习,建议避免冒险,考虑延期逃跑,喜欢保持想象,需要反对忍受”.其相对应的动词依次是:permit/allow,finish,practise;

  advise/suggest, avoid,risk: consider, delay, escape/miss; enjoy/appreciate, keep, imagine; need/want/require,mind. can't help/can’t stand.

  二、复合句

  1、学生最容易混淆的是定语从句与同位语从句的区别.

  例如:A、The news that our team has won the match is true. (同位语从句)

  B、The news that he told us surprised everybody here. (定语从句)

  关键的区别在于连接或关系代词that:有意义的是定语, 无意义的是同位.因为引导定语从句的that在从句中作主语或 宾语,而引导同位语从句的that只起到连接词的作用.

  2、接着容易混淆的是引导定语从句的关系代词that与 which:that之前是不定(代词)、序数(词)、(形容词)级:which之前是介词短语与逗号(非限制性).

  例如:A、All that we have to do is to practise every day.

  B、The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.

  C、I have lost my pen,which I like very much.

  D、The house in front of which there is a garden is my home.

  三、It的用法

  1、It除了代替人和物以外,还可以作形式主语.而真正的主语(不定式、动名词或从句)则放于谓语或表语之后.

  例如:It is nor easy to finish the work in two days.

  然而有少数表语之后接动名词作真正的主语.这些表语是:无助(no help)、无用(no use)、没好处(no good);工作(hard work)、费时(a waste of time)、又危险(a danger).

  例如:A、It is no use crying over spilt milk.

  B、It is a waste of time waiting for him.

  2、It还可以作形式宾语.通常下列动词后面可接it作形式宾语:2f2tcjm(find,feel,think,take,consider,judge, make).

  例如:A、He made it clear that he was not interested in this subject.

  B、I think it no use arguing with him.

  3、It用于强调句式.要强调句子的某一部分(主语、宾语、 状语),可以把it当作先行词.这种句子的结构是:It is(was)+ 被强调部分+that(who)+句子的其余部分.

  例如:A、It iS Professor Lin who teaches us English-(强调主语)

  B、It was in Shanghai that l saw the film.-(强调状语)

  C、It was in 1990 that I worked in the factory.(同上)

  但要注意与定语从句的区别.

  例如:D、It was 1990 when I worked in the factory.(定语从句)

  在强调句式里,我们把强调结构It is(was)…that除去,句子还很完整.如例句C.而例句D就不能.

  四、倒装结构

  学生容易混淆的是全部倒装与部分倒装.如何区分之,编个顺口溜:副(adv.)介(prep.)提前全倒装,其它句式部分倒;否定提前倒助动,让步状语倒表语;复合句式倒主句,不

  倒装的属特殊.下面举例说明:

  A、Here comes the bus.(副词提前,全倒装)

  B、Here he comes.(代词作主语,不倒装)

  C、In front of the house lies a garden.(介词短语提前,全倒装)

  D、Never shall I do this again.(否定词提前,部分倒装)

  E、Young as he is ,he knows a lot.(让步状语从句,表语倒装)

  F、Only when he told me did I realize what trouble he was in.(only 修饰状语,主句倒装)

  G、Only he can save the patient.(only修饰主语.不倒装)

  H、Not only will help be given to people,but also medical treatment will be provided.(否定词提前,部分倒装)

  I、Not only he but also we like sports.(连接两个主语,不倒装)

  五、虚拟语气

  虚拟语气也是一个难点.所谓虚拟语气是表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不表示客观存在的事实.它通过句子的谓语动词的特殊形式来表示.现归纳如下:纯假设,用虚拟,动词时态退一级:条件句,分主从,主句谓语前加would (should,could,might);表愿望,用虚拟,wish后面接宾语(从句):现在过去与将来,动词时态退一级:提建议,用虚拟,宾语(从句)动词用(should)do:俩建议,三要求,再加坚持与命令(suggest,advise,demand,require,request,insist,order):It is time和eoukd rather,后接丛句用虚拟:部分主语从句中, 谓语用虚拟结构 (It is necessry /important/natural/natural/strange/strange that……should do). 下面举例说明:

  A、If you came tomorrow,we would have the metting. (条件句虚拟)

  B、Without air,there would be no living things.(同上)

  C、We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.(表示愿望虚拟)

  D、He demanded that we (should)start right away.(表示建议虚拟)

  E、It is(high)time that we left (should leave)now.(特殊从句虚拟)

  F、I would rather you gave me the book.(同上)

  G、It is necessary that we should clean the room everyday,(主语从句虚拟)

  H、He speaks English so fluently as if he were English. (特殊从句虚拟)

  高三英语知识点4

  1. impression

  n.印痕;印记;印象;感想

  常用结构:

  have an impression of sth./doing sth. 对(做)某事有印象

  make an impression on sb. 给某人留下印象

  make no impression on 对……无影响/效果

  give sb.a favorable impression 给某人留下好印象

  an impression of one’s foot 某人的脚印

  Your performance gave me a strong impression.

  你的表演给我留下了很深的印象。

  What I said made no impression on him.

  我的话对他不起作用。

  联想拓展

  impress v.留下印象

  impress sth.on/upon one’s mind 把……牢记在心上

  2. lack

  v.&n. 缺乏;缺少的东西

  注意:lack作名词时,后常接of。lack作动词时,既可作及物动词,也可以作不及物动词,作不及物动词时,后常接for或in。lack不用于被动语态。

  常用结构:

  lack sth. 缺少某物

  lack for sth. 缺少;需要

  for/through lack of... 因缺乏……

  no lack of... 不缺乏

  a/the lack of ... ……的缺乏

  He didn’t go there because he lacked courage.

  他没去那里,因为他缺乏勇气。

  The plant died for lack of water.植物因缺水而死。

  They lacked for nothing.他们无所需求。

  联想拓展

  lacking adj. 匮乏的;不足的;没有的

  be lacking in 缺乏(品质、特点等)

  She seems to be lacking in common sense.

  她似乎缺乏常识。

  3. sight

  n. 视力;视觉;看见;光景,奇观;名胜

  常用结构:

  lose sight of 看不见;忘记;失去

  catch sight of sth./sb. 看见某物/人

  at first sight 初看之下;乍看起来

  at (the) sight of 一看见就……

  out of sight 看不见

  be in sight 看得见,在眼前

  Out of sight, out of mind. 眼不见,心不烦。

  Last summer we had seen the sights of Beijing.

  去年夏天我们游览了北京的名胜。

  Crusoe was frightened at the sight of a man’s footprint.

  克鲁索看到一行人的脚印,他非常害怕。

  4. require

  vt. 需要;要求;命令

  常用结构:

  require that+主语+(should)+动词原形 需要某人做某事

  require sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事

  require sth.(of sb.) 要求(某人)某事

  I will do everything that is required of me.

  凡是要求我的事,我都会办到。

  The situation requires that I(should)be there.

  形势需要我去那里。

  温馨提示

  require后接宾语从句时,宾语从句必须用should do的虚拟语气,其中should可以省略。

  另外,表示“需要”,且是物作主语时,后接动词 ?ing形式的主动形式表示被动含义,可以等于不定式被动形式;在这一点上,need和want用法相同。

  The house requires mending.

  The house requires to be mended. 房屋需要维修。

  All cars require servicing regularly.

  所有汽车都需要定期检修。

  They required him to keep it a secret.

  他们要求他对这事保密。

  5. assist

  vt.&vi. 帮助;援助;参与;出席

  常用结构:

  assist sb. in/with sth. 帮助(某人)某事

  assist sb. in doing sth. 帮助(某人)做某事

  assist sb. to do sth. 帮助(某人)做某事

  assist with 帮助(照料,做);在……上给予帮助

  I am willing to assist you whenever there is an opportunity.

  有机会我愿随时帮你。

  I’m afraid I can’t assist you, you have to go and see the manager. 我恐怕帮不上忙,你得去找经理。

  The headmaster assists with a lot of things when free.

  有空时校长会帮忙做很多事。

  高三英语知识点5

  1.一般现在时:

  一般现在时大多用动词原形来表示。Be\have在人称和数上应按自己的变化规则与主语保持一致。其他动词若其主语是第三人称单数,则应按动词第三人称单数的变化规律变化。

  (1)表示主语现在所处的状态及所具备的特征、性格、能力等。 Eg:They are both tired and hungry.

  (2)表示习惯性的,反复出现的动作与状态。

  常用时间状语:always often sometimes now and then every day

  (3)表示客观事实或普遍真理。

  Eg:The earth moves around the sun.

  (4)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句表示将来的动作。

  Eg:If it doesn’t rain tomorrow,we will go climbing.

  (5)表示按规定预计要发生的动作,只限于go,come,leave,start,stay,return,begin等。

  (6)在某些以have,there开头的句子中,用动词go,come的一般现在时表示正在发生的动作。

  Eg:Here comes the bus!

  2.现在进行时:

  (1)表示说话时正在进行的动作;

  (2)表示即将发生的或按计划安排好的动作,多限于go,come,start,leave,return,arrive,stay,fly等表示运动方向的动词,句中往往有表示将来的时间状语。

  (3)少数动词如go,come,leave,arrive,return,begin,do,die,lose等现在进行时可以表示预计即将发生的动作;

  (4)表示反复发生的动作。

  3.以-ing和-ed结尾的形容词:

  以-ed结尾的形容词用来描述人的精神状态或人对事物的态度或感受;以-ing结尾的形容词有“令人......的”意思,常用来指物。