考GRE需要多大词汇量

更新时间:2020-06-10 16:56:24 编辑:张丹

  GRE篇

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  GRE考试一直以词汇量高著称。如果搜索“考GRE需要多大词汇量”,可以得到少则3000、多则30000的截然不同的回答。但是,这些答案大多是来自于主观判断,缺少科学的证据或理由作为支持,让人不敢轻易相信。在今天的文章中,我们就从词目、词量、词频的角度为您分析GRE考试到底需要多大词汇量?

  01

  如何统计词汇量——词目

  由于单词存在变形,如动词look的常见变形有looks、looked、looking,因此在统计的时候,本文只计算“词目”的数量,不同变形均算作同一个“词目”。因此前面提到过的look、looks、looked、looking只算一个词,这也是目前最常用的统计标准。

  此外,一个“词目”添加了前缀或后缀也有可能变为“新词目”。判断方法为:如果该单词在字典中存在单独的词条、形成新的含义,则为“新词目”,否则就作为其他词的变形。如interest、interesting、interested就构成了三个词目。例如:在字典中可以找到interesting的词条,但无法找到looks的词条,因此前者构成新词目,而后者仅为look的变形。[由wwW.xuexiya.cOm整理]

  02

  GRE考题词汇量的“纯统计”——9208

  在明确了词汇量的定义之后,我们以目前网络上流通的全部1300余道题目为样本统计,发现所有题目中出现的总词汇量为“9208”。

  但是,“9208”是基于以往的考试题目统计出来的,只能说这“9208”词汇可以应付以往的GRE考题,但并不一定足以应付未来的考题。过往经验告诉我们,每次GRE考试都会出现新词。因此应对GRE考试所需的词汇量应大于现有的统计结果。

  在近900道GRE题目样本下,每10道题仍可带来约40个新增词汇。因此仅凭现有的题目是不足以完全覆盖未来考试词汇的。

  03

  什么是词汇难度——生僻度

  我们先来看一道GRE官网上的填空例题:In parts of the Arctic, the land grades into the landfast ice so ______ that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.(A) permanently(B) imperceptibly(C) irregularly(D) precariously(E) relentlessly(答案:B) 这道题目中出现的词汇量为29,请问:如果只是为了做对这一道题的话,一个考生需要有多大词汇量?答案显然不会是29,因此要回答考GRE需要多大词汇量这一问题,更合理的思路应是从GRE词汇的难度着手。有研究指出,阅读英语时理解其意思需要认识98%的单词,最低不能低于95%。我们也以此为标准,即假定普通考生想在GRE考试中大概理解文章意思的话至少应认识其中95%的单词,而追求高正确率的考生需要认识其中98%的单词。那么认识“relentlessly”至少需要多大的词汇量呢?

  最能反映词汇难度的指标是词汇的“生僻程度”:越常见的单词越容易被掌握,越生僻的单词被掌握的可能性越小。我们以当代美语语料库(Corpus of Contemporary American English, COCA)发布的单词词频数据作为计算单词生僻程度的依据。数字越大表示单词越生僻,最大为63145。比如:单词look难度为76,abandon难度为2203,上面例题中E选项的relentlessly难度为10098。

  GRE填空题选项中最难的单词难度为63145,所有单词平均难度为“8963”。对于GRE填空题而言,考生“至少”需要认识80%的词汇(即平均每五个选项认识四个),通过计算可得GRE填空选项词汇中难度排名为80百分位的词汇难度为“15541”;对于认识98%单词的话,对应的词汇难度为“40406”。

  总结

  做GRE填空题需要15541的词汇量。而GRE填空考霸需要40406的词汇量。

  从上面的讨论中可看出,对于考生想要应付GRE考试至少需要的词汇量在15000左右;这意味着考试在掌握四六级6000余词汇的基础上还需要再掌握7000多词汇。

  GRE重点词汇解析:pedant

  pedant: 学究式人物; one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules

  1) someone who shows off learning

  pedant : learning

  pedantic : learned

  pedantic : scholarly

  pedantic : scholar

  insightful : pedant

  pedantic: making an excessive display of learning

  The graduate instructor's tedious and excessive commentary on the subject soon gained her a reputation as a pedant.

  The GSI's tedious and excessive commentary on the subject soon gained her a reputation as a pedant.

  pedant : learning = dandy : preen

  pedant : learning = dandy : dress

  pedantic : scholar = histrionic : actor 学究的:学者=戏剧的:演员

  pedant : learning = martinet : discipline 迂腐的人过分强调知识=严格的人过分强调纪律

  pedant : learning = hack : writing 学究的动作是学习=雇佣文人的动作是写作

  pedantic : learned = moralistic : principled 学究式的:有学问的=道学的:有原则的

  scholarly : pedantic = modest : prudish 儒雅的:书呆的=谦虚的:假装正经

  GRE重点词汇解析:endemic

  endemic: characteristic of or prevalent in a group of people or region

  1) native to a particular area; constantly present in a particular country or locality; epidemic

  The Joshua tree is endemic to the Mojave Desert; it grows nowhere else.

  The endemic fauna was of great interest to the anthropologist.

  A fast-paced style is endemic to those who live in New York City.

  Synonyms: aboriginal, local, regional

  endemic ---- native to or confined to a certain region

  endemic ---- characteristic of a region or people

  endemic ----- characteristic of or often found in a particular locality, region, or people

  endemic ----- natural to or characteristic of a specific people or place

  Endemic ----- belonging to a particular area; inherrent t

  endemic -----inherent; belonging to an area. Malaria, once endemic to the area, has now been largely eradicated.

  endemic---prevalent in or native to a certain region, locality, or people: "The disease was endemic to the region." Don't confuse this word with epidemic.

  endemic epidemic

  endemic<>exotic地方的<>外来的

  GRE重点词汇解析:prevaricate

  prevaricate: 支吾其词; to deviate from the truth: equivocate

  1) to lie or deviate from the truth

  2) to speak equivocally or evasively, i.e., to lie

  Syn: deceive, equivocate, misrepresent, lie, perjure

  prevaricate : deceive

  prevaricate : truth

  prevaricate : deceit

  prevaricate : dishonesty

  1. Rather than admit that he had overslept again, the employee prevaricated and claimed that heavy traffic had prevented him from arriving at work ontime.

  2. Do not prevaricate about who did what or why; simply tell me how the vase got broken.

  The mayor's desperate attempt to prevaricate about the scandal was transparent to the voters.

  His mother knew no one else could have done it, but the child foolishly prevaricated about the stain on the rug.

  prevaricate : deceive = exhortation : encourage

  prevaricate : deceive = filibuster : delay :: blandishment : coax

  equivocate : clarity = prevaricate : truth

  prevaricate : deceit = filibuster : delay

  equivocate/palter/falter/prevaricate 含糊其辞,说模棱两的话

  GRE重点词汇解析:Inane

  Inane: 无意义的; lacking significance, meaning, or point

  Inane : sagacity =

  inane : significance =

  inane <> substantiated

  inane <> expressive/meaningful/pregnant/significant/weighty

  inane <> substantial/substantive

  【考法1】adj. 空洞的: lacking significance, meaning, or point

  【例】inane comments 空洞的评论

  【近】 empty, insubstantial, pointless, senseless

  【反】 meaningful, significant 有意义的;deep, profound 深刻的